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Spouse killings in Iran

Iran Chamber Society

Researcher on women’s issues and criminologist Shahla Moazami interviewed 220 killers: 131 men and 89 women. All were in jail at the time of the interview. Moazami found gender differences in the murder cases. 100% of the men killed their wife themselves, while 67% of the women were assisted by another man in the murder of their husband. Men kill of jealousy; the women want to get out of the marriage.

Iranian laws are based on the shari’ah-laws, which in turn is founded on Islamic holy writings. According to Iranian law a man can kill his wife without punishment if he catches her with another man. But there must be witnesses to the incident – four men. If these criteria are not fulfilled, the man will be punished and might face death sentence. However, when a woman finds solid proof of her husband’s unfaithfulness, she has no right to kill, but can go to court and ask for divorce.

If a woman can prove her husband’s violence by, for example, getting statements from a doctor, she can be granted divorce. But a man cannot be sentenced for violence against his wife, and the police seldom act when a woman complains about her husband beating her. Both the police and the courts will send the woman back to her violent husband. Moazami tells that there is little knowledge among most women about their rights and they are not aware that violence can be a valid reason for divorce – however, this process is long and it can take up to five years before divorce is granted.

Divorce is also difficult for women in Iran, Moazami says, because most women are economically dependent on their husband and besides the father automatically gets parental custody and she looses her children. Moazami tells that the new generation of educated women divorces their husbands more often when they face violence in their marriage. They manage better on their own.

Women who kill
From her interviews Moazami found a clear and common pattern in the stories of the female killers. The women married young, often 12-14 years old, and they had from 5 to 7 children. At the time of the murder their average age was 29 years old. Many of them tell that their husband had lost interest in them, and they felt that their beauty was fading. When a new man takes an interest in them, they fall easily for him. The law gives women few possibilities to get a divorce, and the murder of the husband is planned and done together with the new boyfriend. Only 33% of the women did the killing on their own. Moazami also found cases where women, sometimes with the assistance of their daughters, killed a violent husband.

Moazami thinks there are several structural causes to spouse killing. She mentions poverty, illiteracy, traditional opinions and Iranian women’s position in marriage and society. Young marriage age is also important. Moazami thinks that the women were too young to understand marriage when they married at 12-14 years old, and it was difficult for them make their own demands.

Islam has two traditions, Sunni and Shi’a. Iran is mainly Shi’a, but some areas of the country have large groups of Sunni Muslims. In these areas there are fewer spouse killings, which Moazami relates to the fact that divorce is more easily obtained in the Sunni tradition, for both sexes.

Men who kill
The men’s average age was 40 when the murder was performed. The men had married when they were 22-24 years old with women ten years their junior. Polygamy is practiced in Iran, and 14% of the men had two wives, of which one was killed. 2% of the men had three wives, and killed one of them. 32% of the men were married for the second time. All the men Moazami interviewed had done the murder by themselves. The men gave their wives unfaithfulness as motive for the murder, but often it was more suspicion of adultery than actual events.

Moazami tells that murder of wives is more common in Southern Iran, where many people of Arabic descendant live. There the age difference between the spouses is larger, and jealousy killings are more common there than in the rest of Iran. When Moazami interviewed female killers in the south, the women told that they did not want to be released from prison. They were afraid that their family would kill them. Many women asked the prison authorities of transfer to prisons in other parts of Iran, something which they usually were granted.

Blood price, punishment and the responsibility of the children
In murder cases blood money is used at punishment in Iran. If a man is killed, he has to pay the victim’s family RLS 180.000.000 in compensation. But the blood price of a woman is half of a man’s. Murder has a dual respect in criminal law in Iran that is private and public. The State has a minimum of two years jail verdict. The victim’s family can either demand the death penalty or blood money. If the family demands death penalty, they have to pay the relevant blood money to the executed person’s family. In cases of spouse killing, when there are children in the marriage, the children are the ones who determine the faith of their living parent. The logic of the court is that the children own the family’s blood. The parent will stay in prison until the daughters become nine years old and the sons 15.

When asked how a nine-year-old child can decide on the execution of their father or mother, Moazami answers dryly that according to Islam, a girl can marry when she is 9 years old, and thus make adult decisions. But she adds that there is a proposal to change the law and the age limit in these cases to 13 years for girls. Moazami tells that in most cases the children set their parent free, but the children have to agree on this matter. Often the adults of the victim’s family make the decision for the children.

Many killers cannot afford the blood price. Then they have to remain in jail until they come up with the money, but this might take many years. Moazami cited cases where people stayed in prison until they died because of lack of money.

Moazami claims she sees a new trend in that the courts themselves have started to rule out the death penalty. Moazami tells about a case in the city of Efsahan. The husband was unemployed and went to Tehran to find work. When he came home, the neighbour told him that his wife had a lover. The husband confronted the wife and beat her. The wife told him angrily that four of the seven children had other fathers. The husband killed both the wife and these four children. He was sent to jail, and awaits the decision of the three living children whether he will be executed or not.

Honorary killing
Moazami knows the case of Fadime in Sweden and the discussion on honorary killings. In her opinion there are few honorary killings in Iran. She thinks this is not a part of Iranian culture, but she says it has happened in areas with Arabic influence. She also thinks it was more common before, but that girls of today run away before they are killed. Young women no longer stay in the villages when they face unwanted marriages or threats of revenge from their family when they have been disobedient. They leave or run away. Honorary killings were more common ten years ago. But Moazami also adds that she has less knowledge of honorary killings, because the court will set the killer free.

About Shahla Moazemi
Shahla Moazami was born in 1947 in Efsfahan province. She completed her master’s degree in criminal law taking prostitution as her thesis with her PHD in criminology at the University of Tehran.

Moazami is an associate professor at the Faculty of Law and Institute of Criminology at the University of Tehran. She has done research on violence against women, run away girls, violence against women in work and alternative punishment for women and spouse killings. Presently she is working on a research project about the effects of death penalty on the women in the family.

Last year Moazami published a book on family law for young girls. The book was published with support from the Presidential Office for Women’s Participation. After six months the Ministry of Education banned the book. A female religious clergy thought that the book was not ”suitable” and the official reason was that a book on family law should be for both sexes, a not only girl. But Moazami thinks that the issue was more; that it should be the exclusive right of the clergy to teach family law. However, it was decided that the book be used as a teacher’s guide and be thought for both girls and boy student.

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Climate change is a weapon to destroy Europe and the Western world, because it will drive new populations in huge numbers to Europe. Climate change is easy to accelerate through forest fires anywhere in the world. Huge forest fires in the Third World can contribute more to global warming than all the cars of Europe and North America.

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Why blasting misogynists online actually works in their favour

What drives parents to kill their own children?

IT’S unfathomable, inexcusable, sickening.

The act of killing an innocent child is something most of us cannot comprehend. But an average of 25 children are killed each year by a parent in Australia, with children under the age of one at the highest risk of victimisation.

On Sunday morning, 14-month-old Sanaya Sahib was found dead in Darebin Creek, in Melbourne’s northeast. After days of unanswered questions surrounding the little girl’s grim discovery, police charged her 22-year-old mother with the toddler’s alleged murder.

Police allege Sofina Nikat confessed to the murder on Tuesday night, with Detective Senior Sergeant Stuart Bailey telling an out-of-court-sessions hearing that Ms Nikat had made a “full confession” over the death of her daughter.

The day after charges were laid, Ms Nikat did not appear in the Melbourne Magistrates Court amid concerns over her mental state.

“In most cases, there is a strong mental health issue, which is very sad but that’s the reality,” Dr Jack White, Forensic Psychologist, told news.com.au.

Defence counsel Michael McNamara confirmed that Ms Nikat was examined by a doctor and a psychiatric nurse on the morning of the hearing, and was excused from attending the court proceedings.

It is understood that medical experts were concerned about what kind of effect the court proceeding would pose on her.

“Usually the mother is experiencing severe mental health problems. In fact, I don’t know any cases that don’t have a mother with problems,’’ Dr White said.

“Sadly mothers are the ones that are more common [to killing their children]. But with fathers, it can be a revenge response.”

In 2009, Arthur Freeman threw his four-year-old daughter, Darcey, off Melbourne’s Westgate Bridge, in front of her two younger brothers and shocked witnesses.

His “inexplicable” actions were met with grief, horror and anger across the country, and in 2011 he was sentenced to 32 years prison for murder.

During a 2015 inquest in to Darcey’s death, it was revealed that doctors were warned Mr Freeman was violent, but did not report him to authorities. It was also made evident that the then 37-year-old was angry and upset about receiving reduced access to Darcey, after a long custody dispute.

“I saw [Darcey’s mother] Peta Barnes on 13 April 2007 and she disclosed problems with her angry, irrational husband who shoves and pushes her and is often angry at the kids,” one doctor’s statement said.

The morning Mr Freeman threw Darcey off the bridge, the inquest heard that he had called a friend in tears about losing a custody battle.

Senior Sergeant Damian Jackson told the inquest, in July 2015, that Mr Freeman had never provided an account of what happened that morning.

In an interview with The Age, Dr Ben Buchanan, of the Victorian Counselling and Psychological Services said that when there is violence in the home, usually towards the spouse, it can drive some fathers to kill their own children.

“The best predictor of future behaviour is past behaviour,’’ Dr Buchanan said

“Physical abuse towards the partner is absolutely a sign of a propensity to use physical force against the children.’’

Dr Buchanan also admitted that men who kill their children often see a part of their partner within the child.

“Our children represent our spouses, they’ve got that symbolic representation of the mother but they are more vulnerable,’’ he said.

“In the cases I’ve seen, it’s very rare for them to blame the children; the children are a proxy by which they’re getting back at the mother.’’

And while neither cases are categorised as filicide, when the parent murders a child and follows with suicide, Sam van Meurs, a psychologist at Canberra Clinical and Forensic Psychology points out, said in an interview with Kidspot that a mother who kills her children and then herself can often have a different motivation than a father in the same situation.

“For example Donna Fitchett killed her two children in 2005 and left a note to her husband that said, ‘I just couldn’t abandon our beautiful boys’,” Mr Van Meaurs said.

“In contrast, men are more likely to kill their children for revenge or to punish their partners or ex-partners.”

According to the most recent World Health Organisation statistics, there are around 31,000 homicide deaths of children under the age of 15 in the world each year.

In Australia between 2009-10 and among children aged 0-14, there were 24 deaths due to homicide and the rate of homicide was highest among infants less than one year old.

Jack Levin, an American criminologist, told USA Today that mothers who murder tend to kill their newborns on impulse. “The day a child is born is the day a child is most likely to be killed by a parent,” he said.

Dr Phillip Resnick, director of forensic psychiatry at Case Western and is a leading expert on parents who kill their children, agreed.

“Younger children are much more likely to be killed than teenagers,” Dr Resnick said.

In an interview with TIME magazine, Dr Resnick spoke of the 40 to 60 cases he had worked on in the US that involved parents who killed their children.

In the US, the figures are staggering. About 250 to 300 children are murdered by their parents each year.

While each tragedy falls under vastly different circumstances, Dr Resnick said there are usually five characteristics in which parents kill their children.

“The first is “altruistic.” The classic case is the mother who plans to take her own life and believes that the children are better off in heaven with her,” Dr Resnick said.

“Number Two is the case in which the parent is acutely psychotic. The third type is fatal battering [the child does something to anger the parent and they react]. The fourth is [to get rid of] an unwanted baby, for example an infant born out of wedlock. The final category is spousal revenge, [in which a parent kills the children to hurt the partner], typically after infidelity,” he said.

While admitting the method of preventing crimes that involve parents murdering their children is a “complicated” one, Dr Resnick said access to mental health institutes as well as awareness of depression is mandatory in understanding what drives adults to harm their offspring.

“If a woman is very depressed and she has young children and makes a suicide attempt, there is 1-in-20 chance [in America] that she will try to take the kid with her. Specific inquiries about thoughts of harm toward children should occur in any evaluation of a seriously depressed [mother],” he said.

Dr White agrees, saying Australia needs to address its mental health facilities, and increase support for unstable parents.

“In some ways our mental health system is struggling, and sadly a lot of people don’t get the treatment they require,” he said.

“In the area of mental health, and a mother is not coping, they need to be provided with more assistance.”

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The world is full of multimillionaires who can't handle money. Because, if you have money, live in a Third World country where you can have all the women you want.

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Nothing, absolutely nothing, flatters a girl more than a man committing suicide because of her.

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No hurry in Japan to act on pedophile

TheAustralian September 22, 2010

ACCUSED pedophile Peter Chalk is facing little threat from Japanese authorities, as the school where he taught is refusing to investigate.

In addition, Japanese police are waiting for a referral from their Victorian counterparts before taking any action.

Despite the gravity of the accusations levelled against Mr Chalk, and the close contact he has enjoyed with children during his time in Japan, there is little enthusiasm among school, church and law enforcement authorities for probing his activities.

The Australian has made Katoh Gakuen High School aware of the claims against Mr Chalk, who has admitted he had an "addiction" to young people and had indulged in "crude" behaviour towards them.

The school said in a statement yesterday an investigation was not necessary because Mr Chalk, who has changed his name to Peter Shiraishi in Japan, had left the school last March and no incidents of abuse had emerged.

"Since Mr Shiraishi is already retired from the school, and there were no complaints at our school, we do not have plans to conduct checks at this moment," vice-principal Masamitsu Watanabe told The Australian yesterday.

Mr Chalk began teaching English at the school in April 1995 after he quit as a priest running the Missionaries of the Sacred Heart Order in Japan in the wake of claims about his alleged abuse of boys while he was a parish priest in Melbourne in the 1970s.

The Weekend Australian revealed on Saturday that Mr Chalk is facing allegations he molested several boys during his time in the Warrandyte and Park Orchards parishes of Melbourne. He has denied the claims but admitted to "crude" behaviour and said he believed that young boys at the time had led priests on, a claim that has outraged his alleged victims.

The Australian yesterday asked Katoh Gakuen High School -- a co-education private school south of Tokyo not far from Mr Chalk's home in Emerald Town -- how the former priest came to be hired and if any reference checks were made.

"We do not have the details," Mr Watanabe said. "It was 15 years ago, and the person in charge (of recruitment) already retired from the school."

A spokesman for Shizuoka Prefecture police said they would not take any action against Mr Chalk until they received a request from Victoria Police. He said if such a request were made, local police would assist investigators seeking to interview him or execute an arrest warrant.

The spokesman said there had not been any reports of abuse by Mr Chalk made to Shizuoka police, but even if there were, he would not be permitted to disclose this information.

Victoria Police began an investigation into Mr Chalk in 1993 that appeared to founder when it emerged he had left Australia and disappeared in Japan.

After last week tracking Mr Chalk to his home in Emerald Town, The Australian has provided his address to police.

Deakin University law professor Mirko Bargaric said although Japan and Australia did not have an extradition treaty, there was no real barrier to Mr Chalk being extradited if an arrest warrant were issued and an extradition request approved by Australia's Attorney-General.

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The world in 200 years will be populated by a few thousand male humans who live indefinitely, and a huge number of female looking robots. Women aren't needed, really, and anyway, women are troublemakers, more than anything else.

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'Utterly Damning' Report: Underage Sex Now 'Normal,' UK Children Failed by State

09.05.2017 - Sputnik News

The "normalization" of underage sex in the UK exposes children and young people to the risk of sexual abuse and exploitation, research by the Family Education Trust (FET) suggests.

Young people in the UK increasingly see having sex below the legal age of consent, 16, as "normal part of growing up" — as a result, they not only endanger themselves, but risk contracting sexually transmitted diseases and/or becoming pregnant.

​Moreover, the report apportions blame to public officials and health professionals, suggesting their failure to detect the abuse of young people in cases such as those in Oxfordshire, Rochdale and Rotherham were symptomatic of a misguided but burgeoning belief that underage sex was commonplace — relatively harmless, as long as the individuals involved consent.

Author Norman Wells, FET Director, said "fundamental flaws" in professional attitudes had "directly contributed" towards the exploitation and abuse of children in the UK.

The report is said to be based on analysis of high profile cases of child sexual exploitation. It claims researchers identified a refusal on the part of professionals to raise questions about underage sex or even about a father's identity when presented with a pregnant teenager under the age of 16.

Moreover, the very agencies responsible for protecting young people from sexual exploitation are accused of facilitating a culture in which the response of professionals to underage sex is frequently limited to the confidential provision of contraception. Many health professionals "expect" under-16s to be sexually active, meaning access to sexual health services fails to elicit consideration of whether the girls involved might be suffering abuse.

Wells argues the approach to relationships and sex education in schools, which he claims encourages children to decide for themselves when they're ready to embark on a sexual relationship, would prove counter-productive, exposing them to the risk of sexual exploitation. It goes onto cite the serious case review of the Oxfordshire sex scandal, which noted the "political and professional reluctance" to issue any firm statements about something being "wrong," had contributed to "an environment where it is easier for vulnerable young people to be exploited."

"The evidence suggests the relativistic approach advocated by leading campaigners for statutory sex education is not the solution, but part of the problem. Children, young people and professionals alike all need a clear moral compass in order to safely negotiate the confused and confusing landscape that lies before them," Wells concluded.

Professor David Paton, an expert on the economics of teenage pregnancy at Nottingham University Business School, wrote the report's introduction. He described the findings as "utterly damning."

"With the publication of this report, policymakers and professionals working in sexual health no longer have any excuse to ignore the evidence. It is of the utmost importance that the government takes the findings of this report seriously and undertakes an urgent review of its approach to confidential sexual health services," Professor Paton added.

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We are different. For us, the adherents of Kreutz Religion, sex is sacred. Sexual intercourse is religious service. Flirting is worship. Optimal orgasms build our immortal soul. Our karma depends on sexual success. Evolution has a spiritual dimension.

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Freud's views on early female sexuality in the light of direct child observation.

Abstract

Reviews Freud's writings on early female sexuality to show which of his assumptions have been supported or corrected by subsequent observational studies of young children. The study of the emergence of core gender identity in girls is seen as the key element in clarifying Freud's statements about the onset of and crucial factors in the development of femininity. The role of the father, the discovery of anatomical difference, parental attitudes, and cognitive functions are also examined. (3½ p ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)

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Terrorists are developing a new tactics. Instead of killing victims, they just castrate them, and let them live on. Planned for Swedish and Norwegian men. Perpetrators will just get 6 months in jail.

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You probably have to look at imagery of death and dying regularly to stay focused on what really counts in life: great sex before you are gone anyway.

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This man advertises suicide in Cambodia. I lost my sister to him

Telegraph

Distraught and depressed after the break-up of a relationship, Kim Walton surfed the internet until she found euthanasiaincambodia.com.

"In Cambodia anything is possible," it read. "For those of you who prefer to take charge of your own destiny, come to Cambodia! Live your life the way you want and end it when you are ready."

Mrs Walton, 46, a mortgage adviser, who was divorced more than 20 years ago, sent an e-mail to the site operator with the simple subject heading "Death". A brief correspondence ensued.

Within a fortnight she had left her home in Penn, Bucks, and was travelling 6,000 miles to Kampot, a quiet, dilapidated riverside town.

There, several days later, she wrote a five-page suicide note and overdosed on medicines and alcohol in a £5-a-night guesthouse.

Her sister is convinced that had it not been for the website she would still be alive. "We were very close," said Sally Spring, 46. "She couldn't have done it to me in this country. She would never have put us in a situation where we might find her body."

The relationship that had so upset her had lasted only two months, she added. "If she had been here I would have got her through it," she said. "There's nothing we can do to bring Kim back but I just want the website closed down.

"Any vulnerable person could see it and I don't want any other family to suffer. It's just got to be stopped. It's disgusting and it beggars belief."

The site contains a detailed description of an elasticated plastic bag, available through it for £55, and helium gas to ensure a "peaceful and painless death".

It is operated by Roger Graham, a 57-year-old American former arts and antiques dealer from Paradise, California, where he founded an assisted euthanasia society.

He moved to Cambodia two and a half years ago in response, he says, to the US invasion of Iraq. He adopted the name "Tola", bestowed on him by a bar girl.

According to a legal opinion he obtained from a law firm in Phnom Penh, the Cambodian capital, the country has no law against assisted suicide.

On the site, which he has taken off-line after provincial authorities filed a defamation action against him, he said: "I am not going to pull any switches. I will do whatever it is that is necessary, within the law and my own comfort level, for you to have a satisfying end-of-life experience. I let you make all of your own choices. It is your life."

He asked for £14,000 in charitable donations from potential users of his service.

At his cafe on the bank of the Kampot river, he said: "I don't put the stigma on death that most people have. Death is simply the end point of life. To deny it exists is to be afraid of it, is to be ridiculous. Cambodia is a good country. If you are going to die, come here, leave some money.

"I will do whatever I can to make their experience enjoyable but it remains up to them what they want to do, when they want to do it, how they want to do it."

When his time comes, he added, he will kill himself.

"I'm not going to go plugged into some machine. I don't intend to do it tomorrow, but I might. It's my choice."

He does not differentiate between the terminally ill and those who want to die for other reasons.

"I don't care if you have a problem or not, that's not for me to decide, it's your life."

He declined to answer when asked if he had ever helped anyone to die in America. But he insisted that even though Mrs Walton went to his cafe when she arrived in Kampot, she never broached suicide, or revealed herself as the e-mail sender, and he never saw her again. No witnesses have contradicted him.

"It may sound implausible, but it's true," said Mr Graham. "The inference is I was involved, and I was not."

She did not give him any money or ask him to make any charitable donations for her, he said, and independent witnesses say that all the money she had with her was returned to her family.

No other foreigner is known to have committed suicide in Kampot since Mr Graham arrived and, while he receives e-mails on the subject "all the time", he is not aware of anyone else coming to the town due to the site. He suggested that euthanasia tourism could be "positive" for Cambodia.

Others are revolted by the concept. When the website became public knowledge after Mrs Walton's death in September a third of Kampot's expatriate population signed a petition calling on the authorities to take action.

Prosecution authorities say they will question Mr Graham over alleged defamation soon. But Kampot's vice-commissioner of police, Lt-Col In Chiva, admitted that they had been unable to find any law against the website itself.

Puth Chandarith, the governor of Kampot, said his legal action was for defamation and "false statements that Cambodia is the best place to commit suicide".

If the action failed, he could revoke Mr Graham's business licence.

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The world is full of multimillionaires who can't handle money. Because, if you have money, you want to convert it into the best sex ever. Otherwise it's useless.

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Who murdered Malcolm Caldwell?

On hearing, over Christmas, of the murder at Phnom Penh of Malcolm Caldwell, the British sociologist and friend of the Pol Pot regime, I assumed at once that his friends had killed him. There was bitter justice in the idea that the man who in The Times had apologised for mass murder, should become one of its victims, just as Tom Paine, who had apologised for the far lesser cruelties of the French Revolution, was thrown into prison and sentenced to death by Robespierre, the Pol Pot of his day. Those of us who had thought on reading Caldwell's articles, 'why doesn't he go to Cambodia and see what it's like?', felt shocked, almost guilty, on hearing that he had gone there and met a normal Cambodian fate.

After a little reflection, it seemed fantastic that even the blood-stained Pot could have contrived to kill not only a guest but one of the few outside friends of his despotism. When the newspapers came out on Tuesday, 27 December three days after the massacre, they seemed to accept the Pol Pot version of the affair, expressed in the Daily Telegraph headline: `Hanoi "behind Briton's murder in Cambodia".' The report quoted Cambodia's news agency: `This murder is a political crime committed by the enemy of Kampuchea's revolution aiming at opposing the activities of the sincere friends of democratic Kampuchea the world over'.

Authorities in Phnom Penh were quoted as saying that the attackers were 'enemies of Cambodia who wanted to show that Cambodia could not protect its friends'. As if to confirm this interpretation, Radio Hanoi (the voice of Cambodia's arch enemy Vietnam) portrayed the murder, according to the Daily Telegraph 'as a measure of the security that the present Cambodian regime had achieved since it came to power in April 1975'. Radio Hanoi reported 'in almost gloating terms', that Mr Caldwell had been shot dead in a government-run rest-house the day after interviewing Pol Pot who had 'boasted about "beautiful Kampuchea and the security and stability of the country"' The Daily Telegraph, like other right-wing papers, could not disguise a note of gloating over the irony that Mr Caldwell, before becoming a partisan of Cambodia, had been a supporter of Hanoi and the Vietnamese communists.

The Pot explanation of Caldwell's murder seemed still more acceptable when we were told last month of the existence of a pro-Vietnamese guerrilla movement, the Cambodian United Front for National Salvation, which is sworn to destroy the 'Poi Pot clique'. If such a movement exists and has been recognised by Russia as Cambodia's legal government, it is not implausible that some of its agents might have attacked the guest house and murdered Caldwell in order to blacken Pot.

The Pot explanation of how Mr Caldwell was murdered still does not convince. In particular it appears to contradict the evidence of the two American journalists who had been with Mr Caldwell on the foregoing tour of Cambodia, and were staying in the guest house on the night of the tragedy. One of them, Miss Elizabeth Becker, heard shots, looked out of her room into the corridor and saw a man in a T-shirt who aimed a pistol at her, but did not attempt pursuit when she hid in the bathroom. The other reporter, Richard Dudman, also met an armed man who fired in his direction and afterwards put two shots through the door of the bedroom in which he sought safety. However the gunman or gunmen apparently made no attempt to enter the rooms or kill these two unarmed journalists.

Compare this with the fate of Caldwell. 'According to the Daily Telegraph, the two journalists 'were taken to Mr Caldwell's room where the body of a gunman was sprawled across the doorway and the lecturer lay dead inside. "There may have been some stage-setting — I don't know" Mr Dudman said'. According to Miss Becker (quoted in the Daily Mail): `Malcolm was lying next to his bed. His face was ashen and there was blood on his chest and leg. He was dressed, as if he had been awake for a while before being shot'. According to Cambodian officials (Daily Telegraph) 'the gunman (the one sprawled across Caldwell's door) had committed suicide, another had been arrested and a third had escaped'.

Such an explanation of the crime might have satisfied Inspector Lestrade, or Dr Watson but certainly not Sherlock Holmes, could he have been called to assist at 'The Strange Affair of the Phnom Penh Guest House'. Quite apart from the improbability of a suicide by one of the gunmen, how could another of them have been captured. presumably still on the premises, at least one and a half hours after the first outbreak of shooting? Was the guest house not guarded? How could Vietnamese or other hostile agents have gone unnoticed in what is by all accounts a now deserted city? Most significant of all: why, if the gunmen wished to demonstrate the lack of security in Phnom Penh, did they murder Caldwell but leave the two American journalists unscathed in their rooms? Could this be connected with the fact that Caldwell had separate status from the journalists!?

Such questions are all the more pertinent when one examines the statement made on Radio Hanoi by Wilfred Birchett, the proCommunist Australian author, who was a friend and adviser to Prince Norodom Sihanouk, the former King of Cambodia, overthrown in 1970. Apparently, Birchett had given Caldwell a message of greeting for Sihanouk who is now under some kind of house arrest in Phnom Penh. According to Birchett (quoted in the Daily Telegraph 30 December): 'Caldwell more or less defended the Cambodians, or rather the Pol Pot-Ieng Sary regime, although he admittedly was not very well informed about what was going on. . . He said that when he got to Cambodia, he was absolutely going to insist that he see former head of state Prince Norodom Sihanouk. But I also warned him that it might be dangerous for him to go to Cambodia, because I know that Malcolm Caldwell was quite an honest person, an independent person, and that he would try to get the facts. I warned him if you get too many facts you may be in trouble'. In this Radio Hanoi broadcast, Mr Birchett said he was convinced that Caldwell was murdered by the Cambodian authorities 'because he had discovered some facts and probably made his view known'.

On Wednesday, January 3, there came reports from Hong Kong and Bangkok that Vietnam had invaded Cambodia on a 200 mile-long front. If it has come to war between the two communist countries that Malcolm Caldwell befriended, we shall alas never know for certain whose side he was on.

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We are different. For us, the adherents of Kreutz Religion, sex is sacred. Sexual intercourse is religious service. Flirting is worship. Optimal orgasms build our immortal soul. Our karma depends on sexual success. Evolution has a spiritual dimension.

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